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Rainfed Farming System

  • Overview

    Rainfed Farming System

    Rainfed agriculture occupies about 51 percent of country’s net sown area and accounts for nearly 40 percent of the total food production. Rainfed agriculture is complex, highly diverse and risk prone. It is characterized by low levels of productivity and input usage coupled with vagaries of monsoon emanating from climate change; resulting in wide variation and instability in crop yields. In view of the growing demand for food grains in the country, there is a need to develop and enhance the productivity of rainfed areas. If managed properly, these areas have tremendous potential to contribute a larger share in food production and faster agricultural growth compared to the irrigated areas which have reached a plateau.

  • Programmes, Schemes & New Initiatives

    National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture(NMSA)

    1.National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA)

    NMSA is envisaged as one of the eight Missions outlined under National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC), NMSA aim at promoting Sustainable Agriculture through climate change adaptation measures. The major thrust is enhancing agriculture productivity especially in rainfed areas focusing on integrated farming, soil health management, and synergizing resource conservation. Besides, NMSA also a committed target to fulfil National and International commitments on Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) &Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC). All the components of NMSA such as Rainfed Agriculture, Soil Health Management, Organic Farming, etc. have significant role in achieving SDGs & INDC.
    NMSA as a programmatic intervention caters to Mission Deliverables that focuses mainly on conservation agriculture to make farm sector more productive, sustainable, remunerative and climate resilient by promoting location specific integrated/composite farming systems; soil and moisture conservation measures; comprehensive soil health management and mainstreaming rainfed technologies.
    NMSA has one of the components of Rainfed Area Development being implemented by RFS division.

    Rainfed Area Development (RAD) :

    RAD focuses on Integrated Farming System (IFS) for enhancing productivity and minimizing risks associated with climatic variability’s. Under this system, crops/cropping system is integrated with activities like horticulture, livestock, fishery, agro-forestry, apiculture etc. to enable farmers not only in maximizing farm returns for sustaining livelihood, but also to mitigate the impacts of drought, flood or other extreme weather events with the income opportunity from allied activities during crop damage.
    For the Year 2020-21 (B.E), budget provision of Rs. 202.50 crore has been made for implementation of the programme. The major findings of impact evaluation carried out by Agricultural Corporation Finance Ltd in 2017 are as under:

    • Integrated Farming System (IFS) is an effective initiative of DAC&FW for climate resilient and sustainable livelihoods of the farmers adopting cluster approach.
    • Horticulture and Livestock based farming system are more popular intervention among most of the farmers. There is high demand for assistance for these interventions. The Livestock based farming system not only enhances the livelihoods but also increases the organic residue in the soils which further improves soil health and ecology.
    • Percentage of local breed of cow increased in Andhra Pradesh (73%), Jharkhand (50%), Rajasthan (52%), Tamil Nadu (54%) during RAD period. Similarly the population of local breed of buffalo increased in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh.
    • The annual income from cows increased and beneficiaries were benefitted by 49% in both Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh, 36% in Maharashtra and 19% in Karnataka and for beneficiaries in other states the annual income mostly remained unchanged
    • It has been observed that the scheme has helped the farmers in increasing their income by 20% to 30% depending on different interventions under IFS and supplementary activities. This estimate was corroborated by field study as the overall increase in income during RAD was about 38%.

    The details of allocation during 2020-21, releases (Central Share), and area covered under RAD since inception up to 2019-20 are as under:

    Click for Allocation for 2020-21 (Central share) under RAD

    Click for Details of Central share released under IFS from 2014-15 to 2019-20

    Click for Details of Area covered under RAD from 2014-15 to 2019-20

    Click for Operational Guidelines of Rainfed Area Development (RAD)

    Besides, MIS, has been developed for monitoring the implementation of the Programme.

    2.Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojana(PMKSY) :

    The Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana (PMKSY) was launched during the year 2015-16 with the motto of ‘Har Khet Ko Paani’ for providing end-to end solutions in irrigation supply chain, viz. water sources, distribution network and farm level applications. The PMKSY not only focuses on creating sources for assured irrigation, but also creating protective irrigation by harnessing rain water at micro level through ‘Jal Sanchay’ and ‘Jal Sinchan’.

    PMKSY has the following components:

    Accelerated Irrigation Benefit Programme(AIBP):being implemented by Ministry of Jal Shakti..

    PMKSY -Har Khet ko Pani: being implemented by Ministry of Jal Shakti

    PMKSY -Watershed: being implemented by Department of Land Resources.

    PMKSY- Per Drop More Crop (PMKSY- PDMC): Department of Agriculture, Cooperation & Farmers Welfare is implementing PMKSY- PDMC which is operational in the country from 2015-16. The PMKSY- PDMC focuses on enhancing water use efficiency at farm level through Micro Irrigation viz Drip and Sprinkler Irrigation System. Besides promoting micro Irrigation, this component also supports micro level water storage or water conservation/management activities as Other Interventions to supplement source creation for Micro Irrigation.

    Micro Irrigation:

    Micro Irrigation technologies viz. drip and sprinkler irrigation is a proven technology which has gained immense popularity amongst the farmers in India. Micro irrigation not only helps in water saving, but also in reducing fertilizer usage, labour expenses, and other input costs and enhancing farmers’ income. With this technology, additional area can be irrigated with the same amount of water compared to conventional method of irrigation. In addition, water deficient, cultivable waste land and undulating land areas can easily be brought under cultivation due to ease of irrigation.

    An impact evaluation study for Micro Irrigation was carried out in the year 2014 and major findings of the study are:

    • Irrigation cost reduced by 20% to 50% with average of 32.3%.
    • Electricity consumption reduced by about 31%.
    • Saving of fertilizers vary from 7% to 42%.
    • Average productivity of fruits and vegetables increased by about 42.3% and 52.8%.
    • Overall income enhancement of farmers in the range of 20% to 68% with average of 48.5%

    The positive outcomes of micro irrigation have made food security effective due to increase in production and productivity of different crops and increased area under irrigation from the same source of water resulting in enhanced nutritional security for the country.

    Sequence of schemes on Micro Irrigation:

    Since January 2006, the Government of India has been implementing Centrally Sponsored Scheme on Micro Irrigation with the objective to enhance water use efficiency in the agriculture sector. Under the scheme, technological interventions like drip & sprinkler irrigation systems are promoted to encourage the farmers to use them for conservation and saving of water & improved yield.
    In June 2010, the scheme was up-scaled to National Mission on Micro Irrigation (NMMI), which continued till the year 2013-14. From 1st April 2014, NMMI was subsumed under National Mission on Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA) and implemented as one of the components under “On Farm Water Management” (OFWM) during 2014-15. From 1st July 2015, the scheme has been subsumed under Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana (PMKSY) and implemented as ‘Per Drop More Crop’ component of PMKSY.

    Click here for year wise Central Assistance released under PMKSY- Per Drop More Crop
    Click here for Micro Irrigation Area coverage through Centrally Sponsored Schemes.
    Click here for State wise Allocation of Central Assistance for 2020-21 under PMKSY-Per Drop More Crop
    Click here for Operational Guidelines of PMKSY- Per Drop More Crop (Micro Irrigation)

    Micro Irrigation Fund

    A dedicated Micro Irrigation Fund created with NABARD has been approved with an initial corpus of Rs. 5000 crore (Rs. 2000 crore for 2018-19 & Rs. 3000 crore for 2019-20) for encouraging public and private investments in Micro irrigation. The main objective of the fund is to facilitate the States in mobilizing the resources for expanding coverage of Micro Irrigation. MIF would not only facilitate States in incentivizing and mobilizing resources for achieving the target envisaged under PMKSY-PDMC but also in bringing additional coverage through special and innovative initiatives by State Governments.
    An Advisory Committee has been set up to provide policy direction and ensure effective planning, coordination and monitoring of the Micro Irrigation Fund. The composition of the Advisory Committee is as follows:
    (i) Secretary, Department of Agriculture, Cooperation & Farmers Welfare (DAC&FW) Chairman
    (ii) Secretary, Ministry of Water Resources, River Development & Ganga Rejuvenation Member
    (iii) Secretary, Department of Land Resources Member
    (iv) Secretary, Ministry of New & Renewable Energy Member
    (v) Secretary, Ministry of Rural Development Member
    (vi) Chairman, NABARD Member
    (vii) Chief Executive Officer (CEO), National Rainfed Area Authority (NRAA) Member
    (viii) Joint Secretary, RFS, DAC&FW Member Secretary

    Click here for Operational Guidelines of Micro Irrigation Fund (MIF)
    Click her for Micro-Irrigation (MIF) Project-wise Status

  • National Rainfed Area Authority(NRAA)

  • Circulars

    Inclusion of intervention of Shade Net House under Rainfed Area Development(RAD) Component of National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture(NMSA)
    Standing Technical committee
    SAGY(Sansad Adarsh Gram Yojana)
    Project Sanctioning Committee
    National Advisory Committee
    Guidelines for implementatiion of SCSP and TSP
  • Presentations

    PMKSY-PMO - 30.12.14 Fin
    NMSA - 19 August
  • Subordinate Offices

    Soil & Land Use Survey of India
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