CURRENT STATUS:

 Fruits:

India is the second largest producer of Fruits after China, with a production of 44.04 million tonnes of fruits from an area of 3.72 million hectares (Fig-3). A large variety of fruits  are grown  in  India, of which mango, banana, citrus,  guava,  grape, pineapple and apple are the major ones.  Apart from these, fruits like  papaya, sapota, annona, phalsa, jackfruit, ber, pomegranate in tropical  and  sub‑tropical  group and  peach,  pear,  almond, walnut,  apricot  and strawberry in the temperate group are  also grown in a sizeable area. Although fruit is grown throughout of the country, the major fruit growing states are Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and Gujarat . 

AREA AND PRODUCTION OF FRUITS IN INDIA DURING 1999-2000

Crop

    Area (000 ha.)

 Production (000 MT)

Apple

238.3

1047.4

Banana

490.7

16813.5

Citrus

526.9

4650.6

Grapes

44.3

1137.8

Guava

150.9

1710.5

Litchi

56.4

433.2

Mango

1486.9

10503.5

Papaya

60.5

1666.2

Pineapple

75.5

1025.4

Sapota

64.4

800.3

Others

601.2

5707.6

Total

3796.8

45496.0

Mango  is  the most important fruit covering about 35  per cent of area and accounting of 22 per cent total production of total  fruits in the country, which is highest in the world  with India's share  of  about 54%.  India has the richest collection of mango cultivars.  Major mango growing States are Uttar  Pradesh, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, West Bengal, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Karnataka,  Kerala and Tamil Nadu. The main varieties of mango grown in the country are Alphanso, Dashehari, Langra, Fajli, Chausa, Totapuri, Neelum etc. Banana comes next in rank occupying about 13 per cent of the total area and accounting for about  34.2 per cent of the total production of fruits.   India has first position in the world in banana production. While Tamil Nadu  leads  other States with a share of 19.00 per  cent, Maharashtra  has highest  productivity of  58.60  metric  tonnes against India's average of 32.50 metric tonnes per ha. The other major banana growing states are Karnataka, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh and Assam The main varieties of banana are Dwarf Cavendish, Bhusaval Keli, Basrai, Poovan, Harichhal, Nendran, Safed velchi etc. Citrus fruits rank 3rd in area and production accounting  for About 12  and  10.4  per  cent  of the  total  area  and  production respectively.   Lime, lemons, sweet oranges and mandarin cover bulk of the area under these fruits and are  grown  mainly  in Maharashtra,  Andhra  Pradesh, Karnataka,  North‑Eastern  States, Punjab, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh. Guava is the fourth most widely grown fruit crop in India. The area under guava is about 0.15 Million ha producing 1.80 MT. The popular varieties of guava are Allahabad Safeda, Lucknoe-49, Nagpur Seedless, Dharwar etc.    Bihar is the leading state  in guava production  with 0.30 MT followed by Andhra Pradesh, and Uttar Pradesh. The other states where guava is grown widely  Gujarat, Karnataka, Punjab and Tamil Nadu. Grapes occupies fifth position amongst fruit crops with a production of 1.08 MT from an area of 0.04 Million ha. The major varieties of grapes grown in India are, Thomson Seedless, Sonaka, Anab-e-Shahi, Perlette, Banglore blue, Pusa seedless, Beauty seedless etc. Maharashtra occupies the first position with a production of 0.68 MT of grapes, followed by Karnataka. The other states growing grapes are Punjab, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.  The other major fruits grown in the country are Apple, Litchi, Papaya, Pineapple and Sapota

 

AREA ( IN 000' HA )

PRODUCTION ( IN 000' MT )

STATE / UT's

1996-97

1997-98

1998-99

1999-00

1996-97

1997-98

1998-99

1999-00

ANDHRA PRADESH

406.7

414.5

378.6

449.2

5657.7

5899.1

4589.6

5175.4

BIHAR

292.8

299.8

303.6

309.3

2752.2

3755.4

3797.2

3870.7

GUJRAT

137.5

159.3

163

176.2

1820.0

2267.8

2293.5

2376.0

KARNATAKA

298.8

314.6

314.6

315.0

5133.6

5446.3

5446.3

5456.1

KERALA

195.8

195.8

233.1

187.8

1826.0

1826.0

1621.2

1184.5

MADHYA PRADESH

59.5

62.4

63.1

67.4

1127.0

1184.0

1374.4

1536.1

MAHARASHTRA

373.3

380.0

436.1

539.8

6333.1

6473.2

7521.7

8688.5

ORISSA

206.6

227.4

249.4

204.9

1342.4

1511.8

1718.4

1202.9

TAMIL NADU

220.6

234.0

213.5

232.0

3862.7

3683.8

5447.6

5939.6

UTTAR PRADESH(HILL)

185.5

186.7

187.9

172.5

510.2

515.3

520.4

475.5

UTTAR PRADESH(PLAIN)

318.9

328.8

305.2

315.1

4045.1

4293.0

3097.8

3210.5

WEST BENGAL

116.4

117.3

128.0

130.2

1035.1

1373.6

1536.0

1816.1

Others

767.0

781.3

750.7

697.4

5013.0

5033.9

5078.3

4564.1

TOTAL

3579.4

3701.9

3726.8

3796.8

40458.1

43263.2

44042.4

45496.0

 

Vegetables: 

            In vegetables production, India is next  only to China with an annual production of 87.53 million tonnes from 5.86 million hectares having a share of 14.4 per cent to the world production (Fig-6). Adoption of high yielding cultivars and FI hybrids and suitable production technologies has largely contributed for higher production and

productivity.  Per capital consumption has also increased from 95 gram to 175 gram per day. More than 40 kinds of vegetables belonging to different groups, namely cucurbits, cole crops, solanaceous, root and leafy vegetables, are grown in different agro-climatic situations of the country. Except a few, namely brinjal (egg plant), colocasia, cucumber, ridge gourd, sponge gourd, pointed gourd etc., most of the other vegetables have been introduced from abroad.

 Potato is most widely grown vegetable crop in the country with a share of 25.7 per cent. The area under potato cultivation is 1.28 Million ha with total production of 22.49 MT. The main varieties of potato grown in the country are Kufri Chandramukhi, Kufri Jyoti, Kufri Badshah, Kufri Himalani, Kufri Sindhuri, Kufri Lalima etc. Uttar Pradesh is the leading potato growing state in the country with a production of 9.53 million tonnes followed by West Bengal and Bihar. Tomato occupies second position amongst the vegetable crops in terms of production. The total production of tomato in the country in 1998-99 was 8.27 MT from an area of 0.46 M. ha. The main varieties of tomato grown in the country are Pusa Ruby, Pusa Early Dwarf, Arka Abha, Arka Alok, Pant Bahar, Pusa hybrid-1, Pusa hybrid-2, MTH-6, Arka Vardan etc. Andhra Pradesh is the largest grower of tomato with a production of 2.05 MT. The other main tomato growing states are Bihar, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Orissa. Brinjal occupies the third position amongst vegetable crops. The production of brinjal in the year 1998-99 was  7.88 MT from an area 0.49 M.ha. The varieties of brinjal popular in the country are Arka Navneet, Pusa Ankur, Hybrid-6, Pusa hybrid-5, ARBH-1, ABH-1, Pusa Purple Long, Pusa Purple Cluster, Ritu Raj etc. West Bengal is the largest producer of brinjal followed by Maharashtra and Bihar. The other main state growing brinjal Karnataka, Maharashtra, Gujarat,  Andhra Pradesh, Assam and Madhya Pradesh.   Cabbage is the fourth most widely grown vegetable crop of our country. India is the leading country producing Cabbage. The area under Cabbage cultivation is  0.23 M.ha producing 5.62 MT. The main varieties of cabbage are Pusa Drum Head, Golden Acre, Pride of India, Pusa Mukta, Pusa Synthetic etc. West Bengal produces 1.84 MT  and is the largest grower of the cabbage. Orissa and Bihar occupies second and third position respectively. The other major growers of cabbage are Assam, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Gujarat. The other important vegetable crops grown in the country are onion, chillies, peas, beans, okra, cabbage, cauliflower, pumpkin, bottlegourd, cucumber, watermelon, palak, methi, carrot and radish.

                       State-Wise Area  and  Production of vegetables

 

             AREA ( IN 000' HA )

PRODUCTION ( IN 000' MT )

STATE / UT's

1996-97

1997-98

1998-99

1999-00

1996-97

1997-98

1998-99

1999-00

ANDHRA PRADESH

194.2

179.8

249.3

230.1

1895.0

2252.2

3541.2

2839.1

ASSAM

223.2

223.8

245.9

255.9

2074.1

2180.2

2834.8

3089.4

BIHAR

602.4

603.6

616.6

626.0

8235.7

8266.2

9418.4

9548.8

GUJRAT

171.5

153.0

189.9

201.0

2179.4

2176.9

3255.0

2647.0

KARNATAKA

312.1

294.8

309.7

361.6

4978.7

4944.9

4944.9

6796.9

KERALA

243.9

243.9

159.7

159.7

2790.0

2789.5

2857.2

2857.1

MADHYA PRADESH

199.5

206.0

234.0

258.7

2889.5

2748.7

3276.2

3632.0

MAHARASHTRA

352.3

276.0

341.2

385.3

4275.4

3317.2

4479.5

4828.6

ORISSA

868.8

882.7

883.9

788.1

8746.0

9656.6

10087.1

9096.0

TAMIL NADU

164.4

177.0

206.7

209.1

3990.3

4085.4

5704.8

5660.3

UTTAR PRADESH(HILL)

89.8

91.3

91.5

81.9

807.8

792.6

840.7

733.2

UTTAR PRADESH(PLAIN)

647.8

638.2

640.7

688.9

12446.8

8623.4

12680.6

13842.4

WEST BENGAL

831.7

1034.3

1100.0

1122.3

13670.8

15016.0

16367.4

17413.8

Others

613.8

602.7

596.9

624.3

6094.9

5833.3

7248.2

7846.1

TOTAL

5515.4

5607.1

5866.0

5993.0

75074.4

72683.1

87536.0

90830.7